Module Mechanical properties

Thermoelectric modules completely maintain efficiency and durability under the following conditions: sinusoidal vibration, 10-50 Hertz, with vibro-acceleration amplitude up to 20 m/s2 (2g).

Unsealed thermoelectric modules withstand high humidity conditions with the RH level up to 88 % and 298 ° K (25°C) without any failure in operation.

Thermoelectric modules withstand potentially detrimental environmental conditions operating without failure under the low temperature point being equal to 213 K (-50°C) and the high temperature point being equal to 353 K (+80°C)/ 423 K (+150°C).

Thermoelectric modules withstand single mechanical shock with the peak shock acceleration being equal to 20G (200 m/s2) amd 2-4 msec-Collision Momentum without any failure.

Insulation Resistance Requirement

Insulation resistance of thermoelectric modules between the electrodes and outer surfaces of the ceramic plates is no less 20 M Ohms at the test DC voltage of 100 Volts under such standard climatic conditions as 25 ± 10°C, 45-80 % RH and 84-106,7 Kpascal atmospheric pressure (630-800 mm of mercury column).

Thermoelectric Module Reliability Test

The manufacturer strictly observes the manufacturing standards and the developed procedures of quality control and testing to insure products quality and reliability. Such quality control and testing procedures include:

  • Hand Over (Acceptance) Test
  • Periodic Tests
  • Reliability Test (Thermal Cycling)

All tests of thermoelectric modules, if not otherwise specified, are to be conducted under the regular climatic conditions which are as below:

Air temperature (25± 10)°C,
Relative air humidity (RH) 45-80%;
Atmosphere pressure 84-106,7 K Pa (630-800 mm of mercury column)


Hand Over (Acceptance) Tests

Each thermoelectric module produced is to be subjected to the acceptance (hand over) test with regard to its conformity to OEM specifications, requirements of international quality control system ISO 9001 and particular customer specifications.

The following points are to be measured and checked:

• Overall Dimensions;
• Internal Resistance (alternative current resistance - ACR);
• Figure-of-Merit, Z;
• External Parameters;
• Assembly, Marking, Packing.

Should any deviation from the set norms and standards occur, the module is rejected and the whole production lot is not packed and must be returned to the manufacturing department. The modules are thoroughly studied for defects in order to eliminate them in future.

Periodic Tests

Thermoelectric modules are periodically tested in order to confirm the efficiency of engineering developments, design and technologies employed in the manufacturing process as well as module compliance with OEM standards. Periodical tests are conducted twice a year and cover:

• Overall Dimensions;
• Temperature difference (dT), Cooling Capacity (Q), Current (I), Voltage (V);
• Figure-of-Merit (Z);
• External Parameters;
• Insulation Resistance;
• Module Sinusoidal Vibration Tolerance;
• Module High Humidity Tolerance;
• Module High Temperature and Low Temperature Tolerance;
• Module Single Mechanical Shock Tolerance;
• Module Transportation Tolerance.


Reliability Test (Thermal Cycling)


Module Reliability Tests aim at determining thermoelectric modules reliability under various exploitation conditions. Four thermoelectric modules of the same Part Number, which have passed the acceptance test, must be subjected to Reliability Test. Type of cycling and duration are determined by OEM standards or customer requirements if they are appropriate. Module ACR value and, if necessary, temperature on the ceramic plates’ outer surfaces are currently controlled and monitored during the whole process of cycling. For this test the modules are fixed between two heat sinks of different configuration. A certain voltage is applied to the module electrodes in order to provide periodical heat flow through the thermoelectric module. The test defines the modules’ reliability and life span.


The following kinds of thermal cycling are used for the reliability test:

-        «Periodic» Cycling or “On/Off” cycling;
- «40-90» Cycling;
- «0-90» Cycling;
- «0-60» Cycling.


When thermoelectric modules are «40-90» / «0-90» / «0-60» cycled, the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric module is continuously measured and monitored. As soon as the temperature on either side reaches 0° C or 40° C (depending on the kind of cycling), the polarity of the supplied voltage is reversed and the temperature reaches 60° C or 90 ° C (depending on the kind of cycling). The maximum speed of temperature changing is 1° C/sec.

The module reliability test is considered to be successful if after 10,000 cycles the volume of ACR changing does not exceed 0,2 –0,3 % (determined by the module type tested).


  • Temperature cycling
  • Burn-in
  • Leak testing of hermetic packages
  • Semi-automatic measurement of detector signal and noise
  • Spectral measurements
  • Environmental testing


 Figura 1





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