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SKUTTERUDITES High Temperature Application
CIDETE - will joint European Projects as SME partner with expertise in the following fields:
Thermoelectric Inorganic Materials Development (NMP)
Research in Organic Thermoelectric (NMP-PEDOT)
Waste Heat Energy Recovery (ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT)
Harvesting - Recovery of waste heat as energy (ENERGY)
Thermoelectric and Biopolymers integration (KBBE)
PV Solar Panels Thermal Modeling (SOLAR ENERGY)
Hydrogen Storage - Thermal Management (JTI)
Avionics - Thermal Management - Heat Pipes Development
Heat Pipe Solutions - Up to 1000C with Liquid Sodium
Smart Windows - Novel Concept Solutions (Die Sensitizers, Electrochromics, PEDOT, Harvesting, Software)
Skutterudite Performance Curves
CIDETE INGENIEROS IS INVOLVE IN THE FOLLOWING
NANOTHERMEL, 2001-2004 Development of new Skutterudite materials with CoSb and ZnSb, achieving during the project a figure of Merit ZT=1.7, the highest ever
IMS - Integrated Modular System, 2004-2006 .
Aim of the IMS project is to develop an innovative technology and the industrial production process for a completely Building Integrated ThermoPhotovoltaic and Thermoelectric-climate conditioning solution. The system called Integrated Modular System (IMS) is conceived as a completely building integrated and self standing energy system; IMS works as bioclimatic regulator, realising a trivalent effect (Thermal-Photovoltaic-HVAC) in the same element, exploiting solar radiation as its primary energy source and making the building completely independent form the energetic point of view.The product is designed to be produced with relatively low cost and on flexible support, in order to be easily mounted with yard techniques and completely integrated in building during construction and restoration phase. The aim of the project is to apply the most innovative and advanced nano-films production solutions achieved in Thermoelectrical and Photovoltaic field to obtain unique performances for the proposed system.
On the external part of the building the PV effect is realised through deposition of low cost amorphous silicon to be integrated on the flexible polymeric pipes working as thermal captive elements. The TE subsystem is fed directly through DC current produced by the PV subsystem, and produces heat or cold by acting on the current polarity, such way allowing self standing and solid state air conditioning. The TE effect is realised through a thin semiconductor film deposed over the polymeric support, where the heat removal is realised by exchange with a liquid vector, and than recovered for domestic hot water needs or dissipated. The element is integrated into the building structure (e.g. ceiling) to act the climate conditioning of the building, both heat and cold. The expected results are 1) the definition and design of the IMS product 2)The definition of the process for production of the IMS.
The main objective of the EPHOCELL project is to define and develop easy-to-implement plastic sheets with an adequate molecular multicomponents system. These materials will permit the conversion of the whole UV light (290nm – 400 nm) and a part of IR light (700 nm – 840 nm) of solar spectrum in an adequate radiation (visible) for the PV process in commercial (a-Si and GaInP) and under development (organic) solar cells. This will result in an increase of the electrical energy produced by the solar cell. The research and development to be realized during this project will essentially focus on the studies of molecular system able to generate adequate photon energy conversion and the evaluation of the new technology in terms of efficiency and chemical and physical stability. Another part of the work will consist in the development of polymer matrix able to contain such molecular systems. Its physical, mechanical and ageing properties will be evaluated, in order to obtain a new technology that can be directly applied on the solar cell superficies for an in situ evaluation of the results and a medium-term commercialization. By increasing the efficiency and energy productivity of the existing PV technology, the project will increase the competitiveness of the European companies in various sectors like polymer, renewable energy, and fine chemical.
Global energy uncertainty and the limited resources coupled with increased energy needs fuels the search for improving the efficiency of energy conversion technologies. Besides, fossil energy sources cause environmental damage contributing to global warming, giving further motivation for improved energy harvesting from fossil fuel based technologies. Europe is an energy intensive region yet heavily reliant on imports. The recent commitment prior to Climate Conference, Copenhagen (Dec 2009) by the EU included an unconditional 20% reduction in green-house emission (compared to 1990 levels) by 2020. (1) Although the EU policies target increased use of renewable energy to 12% of gross energy production by 2010, this commitment has also highlighted the urgent need for improving the energy utilization of fossil-fuel based power-plants to allow continuation of the energy intensive lifestyle of EU countries.
Thermoelectric (TE) devices can play a very important role in efficient energy harvesting, and recovery. TE devices are ‘fuel-free’ solid-state devices with no moving parts and therefore are extremely reliable. TEs can harvest residual low-grade energy which otherwise is wasted. To date, their use is limited by low conversion efficiency. However, recent developments have shown that dramatic improvements in the performance of TE devices can be made. The recent TE conference series, ICT2009 gave the final remarks that the development of TE materials has advanced tremendously with the result that widespread use of this technology can be expected in just a few years time from now. Next generation TE devices can certainly revolutionize several
concepts of energy harvesting and conversion for power generation,
refrigeration/heating, and thermal sensing both in terrestrial and space applications.
The key factor for improving the performance of TE applications is mainly through the development of TE materials as well as development of corresponding TE module/device technology based on the material types. .Also to be considered the design of convenient devices which can ensure high heat transfers rates at the hot and cold surfaces. Recent advances in nanotechnology offer unprecedented opportunities in designing and fabricating increasingly complex material architectures with controlled
and hierarchical microstructures.
Theoretical predictions showed that the figure of merit of low-dimensional TE materials (a measure of the efficiency of TE materials) can be spectacularly enhanced from currently ≈1 to extremely high values of 5 -10 (up to 20). (2) The present proposal is concerned with the application of modern nanotechnology principles to the design and creation of novel material architectures with enhanced TE properties, with close feedback from theoretical studies. The material architectures considered in this proposal are chosen based on suitability for the development of next generation TE modules and devices, designed for a few specific promising applications including harvesting waste energy from automobiles and environmentally benign, efficient cooling systems.
EDEN, 2012-2015 EDen aims at building a forefront scientific, technological and industrial expertise in energy storage and recovery system. In the past years hydrogen has been indicated as an advantageous energy carrier under many points of view, mainly environment preservation and high energy density.The necessity of hydrogen on specific mobile applications and energy backup system is promoted by the growing demand of sustainable solutions and the interface of discontinuous renewable energies.Hydrogen storage is well known to be the major bottleneck for the use of H2 as energy carrier and despite the huge scientific and industrial effort [fig.1] in developing a novel practical solution for the hydrogen storage, actually th ere are few storage systems available for nice markets.The request for energy storage systems is growing as fast as the energy availability from renewable sources, consequently the market is demanding for more performing systems, safer and economic.It is emerged from the past EU projects (STORHY, NESSHY, COSY, NANOHY, FLYHY) that the hydrogen storage in solid state is the better solution to seek. Between the materials studied for solid state hydrogen storage, Magnesium based systems represent nowadays the major candidate able to meet the industrial storage targets: they have proper gravimetric and energetic density (typical >7 wt.%, ≥ 100 kg H2/m3) and suitable charging and discharging time and pressure.The main barrier to the wide use of the Magnesium based materials in hydrogen storage system is represented by two limitations: the working temperature of about 300°C and the high heat of reaction, around 10Wh/g.
HITTEG, 2010-2013 Project Scope: In complement with existing (already funded) projects (list by partner is given in annex 1) , this proposal deals with the development of the hybridization of the technologies developed in these projects. The main goal will be to propose a HITTEG technology to manufacture low cost, thermal conductive anisotropic ceramics frame for high temperature TEG’s based on the convergence of ceramic tape process and ceramic injection molding (CIM).
NANOTEG (ENIAC) 2011-2013 The concept of NANOTEG is to solve crucial cooling and energy-management issues in transport and energy-efficient applications, based on the technical leverage enabled by highly efficient nanostructured Thermo-Electric (TE) modules compatible with high volume fabrication processes. Seven relevant industrial demonstrators will be produced to create a strong impact in 4 identified application domains: Automotive, Avionics, Power inverters for UPS and motor drive, LED-Lighting.
NANOWIRING 2010-2015 (Marie Curie)
Work toward the realization of prototype device systems driven by the industrial need proposed by CRF, but also motivated by the increasing demand of biocompatible, cheap and accurate biosensors.These include ZnO and SiC nanowire-based (i) gas sensor prototypes with highreproducibility, sensitivity and good stability; (ii) piezoelectric sensors; (iii) bio-sensors.‣ Training of young researches in growing the above-mentioned NWs in a controlled and repeatable way (diameter, aspect ratio, stoichiometry and so on).‣ Correlation between the optical/electrical properties and the synthetic methodologies with the aim of providing the partners with an iterative feedback for the development of growth strategies tailored to the selected sensing applications.‣ Theoretical modelling of the fundamental aspects of the chemo/physical properties of SiC and ZnO nanowires, with particular attention to organic surface modification and piezoelectric properties at the nanoscale.‣ Besides training by the local experts four secondments are planned through which the involved ESRs are introduced to new preparation and characterization methods as well as modeling techniques.
NANOTHERM 2010-2015 (Consolider) – Subcontrated Partner
The aim of this Consolider is to build a consortium with the necessary critical mass, skills, know-how and expertise to produce a significant advance in our understanding of the fundamental physics underlying thermoelectricity to produce next-generation thermolelectric materials and devices. The main goal is to carry out basic research focused on the potentials of nanomaterials in thermoelectricity and to find the conditions which permit tailoring both their electrical and their thermal conductivity towards the realisation of optimum thermoelectric properties in the low and high temperature regime. At present ZT>2 at room temperature appears to be a holy grail in the international thermoelectricity community and nanoTHERM has the ambitious aim to contribute considerably to this achievement by pushing to the limit the performance of thermoelectric materials by means of a clever, purpose-oriented nanostructuration. The new physics knowledge to be gained will benefit future developments in Nanoscience, where low dimensionality, confinement and novel coupling phenomena acquire a new relevance. The more immediate impact of the proposed research is expected to be in the areas of cooling and electricity generation, waste heat recovery and energy harvesting.
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Biopolymers TE concept
Hydrogen Thermal Management